1) The art of building majority by the BJP party in UP and Uttarakhand
- There are several reasons why BJP has dominated these elections:
- Social engineering or electioneering: This is to know the no of voters that are needed to get majority of seats i.e., roughly 30%. Here every party got succeeded wrt to no of votes they are required but failed to acquire the seats as per their calculations. BJP nearly acquired 40% votes targeting the whole BCs and Dalits making Samajwadi Party merely confined to Yadavas and BSP to its leaders. Here limitations of First pass the post system played a major role.
- Developmental plans of BJP and its stability to take strong decisions. BjP claims this victory is for development and not for the denominational politics
- Mandal Politics which were dominant earlier in Bihar and UP are losing its grip. When Janata govt came into power in 1977 appointed Mandal commission which submitted its report during the era of V.P.Singh from there the identities of BC politics and Dalit politics have got strengthened. BC is a mix of several caste formed as solidarity and become as one group because of Mandal Politics
- Patronage Politics are sheening: For example, in Maharashtra the cooperative society which is controlled by NCP headed by Sharad Pawar is losing its importance. Slowly the new BJP is dismantling these old patronage institutions to break old patronage networks
2) End of the Chapter: related to South Korea’s president impeachment
- South Korea is an authoritative democracy where president impeachment has made the world to look at South Korea
- What are the reasons for impeachment?
- President Park Geun-hye, daughter of korean moderniser Park Chen hee. She was the 1st woman president. Due to her active involvement in active corruptive practices, being patronage to Chaebols (which are family oriented businesses like Samsung, LG, Hyundai etc) and for projecting autocratic tendencies. The Chaebols and politics are intermingled in South Korea where they were out of Rule of Law
- She failed to manage the power. Getting into power is easy than to hold and manage it, who ever succeeded in doing that they become as great leaders
- However with her impeachment it shows the tendency of deepening the democracy
- And also recklessness of her in deploying the THAAD missile from USA has impacted the trade with China which was largest trading partner of South Korea. Russia also objected this
3) For bold foreign Policy:
- Global order is changing with changing of both political and economical order i.e., towards multipolar world
- In Political front:
- Earlier US played a containment policy, have build alliances with other countries and assured its presence everywhere. This led to the change of Bipolar world to Unipolar. But now this trend is reversing with China’s OROB initiative and its naval base presence in Djibouti (horn of Africa) and Gwadar (Pakistan)
- In Economic Front:
- In last 20 years, incomes of 80% of population in the west stagnated, that is the reason why people voted for Brexit and Trump
- Per capita income in China became 4 times and in India, it is more than doubled
- Societies in western are ageing
- Technology is disrupting labour markets and business models
- Digital economy is expected to provide 25% of global productivity by 2025
- AIIB and NDB will marginalise World Bank and IMF
- Bilateral deals may become order of the day instead of present multilateral, President of US stated that UN as chatterbox
- Challenges to India:
- So at this time India should change its foreign policy with regard to the changing global order
- India’s 2/3rd of the IT trade is dependent on US which is needed to be diversified
- India shall strengthen its cyber security framework as nature of global conflict is changing from direct warfare to disruption of critical cyber infrastructure.
- As asian connectivity is bound to Boise trade, India shall not lose its opportunities in OBOR and shall Join maintains its reservations on CPEC passing through PoK.
4) MFIs (Microfinance Institutions) understand rural customers:
- Out of 10 small financial banks 8 were made as MFIs by RBI where it can play major role in rural India
- What are the strengths?
- MFIs are critical in understanding the Rural Credit Cycles, that when farmer needs loan and when he can pay it back
- Flexibility, generally MFIs are not under the regulatory frameworks as Corporate banks do. So more flexible with it
- Technology adaptability is high in MFIs where Financial Inclusion will be made possible
5) China planning fivefold increase in marine force:
- China with its Naval bases in Djibouti and Gwadar which is not palatable to India and other countries and detrimental to India’s interest
- Marine force increase from 20,000 to 1lakh is in anticipation to develop Maritime Silk Road (MSR)
- Why China is augmenting its marine corps?
- To match with USA’s position
- To handle several disputes related to East China Sea and South China sea
- To confront with Taiwan, because China declared Taiwan as integral part of China
- To protect its offshore supply ports in Gwadar, Djibouti etc
- To protect China’s national security in Korean Peninsular
- With frequently Korean and China coming into news remember important mappings wrt to Djibouti, Strait of Hormuz, Bab al-mandab, Horn of Africa (Eritrea, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia), Senkaku or Diaoyu island (East China Sea), Spratly island and Paracel island (South China Sea), Kuril island (dispute between Japan and Russia) in Sea of Japan
6) Scotland seeks to exit U.K:
- Scotland, Northern Ireland, England and wales forms UK where Scotland and Northern Ireland are not in favour to Brexit but other two are in favour but over all outcome is in favour of Brexit with regional variations
- So with unwillingness of Scotland going out of the Single market (different from Free trade Area) i.e. EU wanted to go for referendum in 2018 or 19 to exit from U.K and join into EU. Already scotland went to referendum in 2014 which has came out with result not in favour to scotland independence.
7) Pakistan should be declared as State ‘sponsor of terror’
- USA funds through Aid has come down to Pakistan already with terror activities it is involving
- With the declaration of Pakistan as terror state funds from all the world will come down completely
- USA and UK already declared Pakistan as victim of terrorism