March 18 Answer writing by Chanakya

Q) What are the different biogeographic zones/ regions of India? Examine the ecological problems of these regions. (200 Words)
Ans) The different bio-geographical regions in India are as follows:
1. Trans Himalayan zone.
2. Himalayan zone
3. Desert zone.
4. Semiarid zone.
5. Western ghat zone.
6. Deccan plateau zone.
7. Gangetic plain zone.
8. North east zone.
9. Coastal zone.
10. Islands present near the shore line.
Ecological problems varies from region to region as varied rainfall, temperature, species diversity, local problems etc persists.
a) Fragmentation of habitat:
1) through various man made activities such as mining, construction.
b) Pollution: These regions have been subject to immense pollution, leading to the reduction in the survival rates of many plants and animals, and also interfering with the basic life-processes of the living beings in the region.
3. Submergence: A number of islands have been believed to be on the brink of submergence for quite sometime now, owing to the rising sea levels as a result of global warming.
4. Desertification: The continuous expansion of deserts, into the previously semi-arid regions is indeed a serious manifestation of the effects of land degradation and intensive soil erosion, that has taken place over the years.
5. Rapid melting of glaciers: The phenomenon of global warming has led to this, which is leading to a depletion in the sources of fresh-water for our rivers and streams emerging from the Himalayan ranges.
6. Deforestation: Ecological Imbalance in Western ghats as specified by kasturirangan and gadgil committee.
7. Extinction/Threat to Species: Due to several reasons such as falling prey base, mass poaching, lack of policy support, Poor law enforcement, data unavailability by NCRB etc leading to the threat.
It is the responsibility of not only the govt and law enforcement agencies, but also the civil society to address the threat to the mankind

Q) Write a note on the Cultural Revolution and origin of Chinese Capitalism in China. (200 Words)
Ans) Cultural Revolution, one of the greatest epochal events to have ever taken place, was seen in China during the period 1966-1976.
The Cultural revolution was basically a movement initiated by Mao Zeodong, the then Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, to impose his Maoist ideology throughout China, and purge the Chinese society of all traditional and bourgeois elements. The basic features of the Revolution were as follows:
1. Mobilisation of the youth, who formed Red Guard groups.
2. Taking over of educational institutions by the revolutionaries, and forcefully impose Maoist ideology in their curriculum and teaching.
3. Assumption of complete authority by Mao Zeodong, who ordered the purging of non-compliant officials, as well as ordinary citizens, on a massive scale, and the his insistence on the removal of the ”revisionists” through a violent class struggle.
However, the Cultural Revolution gave way to the progressive rise of capitalism in China, under the leadership of charismatic leaders of the Chinese Communist Party, like Deng Xiaoping. The features of the origin were as follows:
1. A revision of the manner in which the state-led enterprises worked, in the initial stages, in order to save socialism in China.
2. After that, privatization of a number of enterprises were allowed, where heavy investment by the government had not yielded effective results.
3. Decentralization of foreign trade, and conferring of fiscal autonomy upon the provinces were the next steps.
4. Private farming, and creation of SEZs received a big boost.
In short, both the Cultural Revolution, and the origin of Chinese brand of capitalism are two landmark events in China, having close links with each other. In fact, the extreme brand of communism ushered in through the means of the Cultural Revolution, can be believed to be exclusively responsible for having generated the first push towards the need for some kind of liberation, from excessive central control and domination.


2 thoughts on “March 18 Answer writing by Chanakya

  1. ) A flurry of videos has emerged in the social media in recent days showing jawans of both the paramilitary forces and the Army complaining against a host of issues from diet to colonial-era practices. Analyse these issues. Also comment critically how these complaining jawans should be treated by the military and government. (250 Words)

    Ans) Following practices have been the reasons behind the ever burning issues in the para-military forces.They are:
    a) Step-motherly treatment given to para-military forces
    b) Lack of organised status, which consequently leads to the Lack of Non-functional upgradation in their promotions with parity to the Military.
    c) Buddy/sahayak system, which is the legacy of colonial practice.
    d) Flexibility in time-hours, which is leading to frustration
    e) Delivering both army and police services.
    f) No adequate infrastructure, housing, food and medical facilities.
    g) From 2009, more paramilitary men died rather than Army men. Still no martyr status for them.
    h) Diversion of ration food and poor quality of food offered to them. And if any complaints, they are being court martialled by the security forces court, having the less safeguards.
    The aggrieved jawans should be the foremost priority for the top-notch, either in the army or in the govt, as they are the building blocks of the massive organisation. Steps taken should be:
    a) Fixed timing hours.
    b) Organisational structure, NFU, Promotion at par with army, and the implementation of one rank-one location-one salary must be introduced.
    c) Adequate infrastructure facilities
    d) Already a redress grievance mechanism was setup to directly send the complaints to army chief. Besides this, an internal complaints committee must be set up and the timely disposal must be set up. A separate ministry must be established and a separate tribunal with adequate safeguards must be set up to ensure their safety and well being.

    It is the responsibility of govt to see not to loose the morale of the armed forces


  2. 2) Discuss the technological measures and meteorological controls available to control industrial air pollution. (200 Words)

    Ans: Air Pollution is one of the persisting problem in the modern world as pointed out by the latest ” State of Global Air ” report due to the large scale expansion of the Industrial sector.The measures that are available to control Industrial air pollution are :
    Technological measures :
    1) Installing advanced ” Super critical steam generators ” to increase the efficiency of the boilers used in Industries especially in Thermal power plants.
    2) Use of Chimneys fitted with ” In build wet scrubber ” , ” gravity settling chamber” , ” effluent evaporation system ” among others that would help in preventing the release of harmful gases into the atmosphere.
    Meteorological Measures :
    1) Use of Satellite to monitor the illegal release of gases by industries into the atmosphere without treating it appropriately.
    2) The weather department together with the environment ministry should be release the ” Air quality Index ” on a real time basis in the vicinity of the Industrial areas to fast track the mitigation measures needed to to be taken after a threshold level of air pollution is crossed.
    Policy Measures:
    1) Fixing the responsibility on the industry for the harmful/Green house gases by levying cess and allocating the amount to the most effected, mostly in the vicinities and to Green projects.
    2) Awareness camps by the govt. about the sustainability.
    Above measures will take the short,medium and long term changes accordingly. For this, strong commitment by all the stakeholders is indispensable.


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