Q) What are the different biogeographic zones/ regions of India? Examine the ecological problems of these regions. (200 Words)
Ans) The different bio-geographical regions in India are as follows:
1. Trans Himalayan zone.
2. Himalayan zone
3. Desert zone.
4. Semiarid zone.
5. Western ghat zone.
6. Deccan plateau zone.
7. Gangetic plain zone.
8. North east zone.
9. Coastal zone.
10. Islands present near the shore line.
Ecological problems varies from region to region as varied rainfall, temperature, species diversity, local problems etc persists.
a) Fragmentation of habitat:
1) through various man made activities such as mining, construction.
b) Pollution: These regions have been subject to immense pollution, leading to the reduction in the survival rates of many plants and animals, and also interfering with the basic life-processes of the living beings in the region.
3. Submergence: A number of islands have been believed to be on the brink of submergence for quite sometime now, owing to the rising sea levels as a result of global warming.
4. Desertification: The continuous expansion of deserts, into the previously semi-arid regions is indeed a serious manifestation of the effects of land degradation and intensive soil erosion, that has taken place over the years.
5. Rapid melting of glaciers: The phenomenon of global warming has led to this, which is leading to a depletion in the sources of fresh-water for our rivers and streams emerging from the Himalayan ranges.
6. Deforestation: Ecological Imbalance in Western ghats as specified by kasturirangan and gadgil committee.
7. Extinction/Threat to Species: Due to several reasons such as falling prey base, mass poaching, lack of policy support, Poor law enforcement, data unavailability by NCRB etc leading to the threat.
It is the responsibility of not only the govt and law enforcement agencies, but also the civil society to address the threat to the mankind
Q) Write a note on the Cultural Revolution and origin of Chinese Capitalism in China. (200 Words)
Ans) Cultural Revolution, one of the greatest epochal events to have ever taken place, was seen in China during the period 1966-1976.
The Cultural revolution was basically a movement initiated by Mao Zeodong, the then Chairman of the Chinese Communist Party, to impose his Maoist ideology throughout China, and purge the Chinese society of all traditional and bourgeois elements. The basic features of the Revolution were as follows:
1. Mobilisation of the youth, who formed Red Guard groups.
2. Taking over of educational institutions by the revolutionaries, and forcefully impose Maoist ideology in their curriculum and teaching.
3. Assumption of complete authority by Mao Zeodong, who ordered the purging of non-compliant officials, as well as ordinary citizens, on a massive scale, and the his insistence on the removal of the ”revisionists” through a violent class struggle.
However, the Cultural Revolution gave way to the progressive rise of capitalism in China, under the leadership of charismatic leaders of the Chinese Communist Party, like Deng Xiaoping. The features of the origin were as follows:
1. A revision of the manner in which the state-led enterprises worked, in the initial stages, in order to save socialism in China.
2. After that, privatization of a number of enterprises were allowed, where heavy investment by the government had not yielded effective results.
3. Decentralization of foreign trade, and conferring of fiscal autonomy upon the provinces were the next steps.
4. Private farming, and creation of SEZs received a big boost.
In short, both the Cultural Revolution, and the origin of Chinese brand of capitalism are two landmark events in China, having close links with each other. In fact, the extreme brand of communism ushered in through the means of the Cultural Revolution, can be believed to be exclusively responsible for having generated the first push towards the need for some kind of liberation, from excessive central control and domination.