March 21 Answer writing by Chanakya

Q)Differentiate between civil war and revolution. Examine how civil wars have shaped political philosophies 18th, 19th and 20th centuries. (200 Words)
Answer: Differences:
1. Civilians directly revolt against the government in a revolution, whereas in a civil war factions wage a war against each other
2. Revolution generally results into changes that take place outside the political arena ie cultural, philosophy, economic etc while civil war constitutes power struggle between groups
3. In civil war, 2 warring parties are generally equal in power, while in revolution low power party who are great in number raises voice against dominant elites with less in number
However, in many instances the differences are in connotation, and these terms are used interchangeably wrt many conflicts (Eg – ‘American Civil War’ is also called ‘Southern Revolution’)
Shaping of political philosophies by civil wars
In 18th CE -> Precursor to modern world ideologies
1. Enlightenment culminated in the French and American revolutions cum civil-wars, where people raised their opinions against the ‘Dark Age’ dominated by orthodox religious discriminatory laws
2. Increase in prominence of philosophy and science
3. Led to unification of people across social groups and enhanced the power of the national state
4. Led to establishing of precedents of democratic institutions as elections, representative government, and constitutions in crude forms
Civil wars in 19th and 20th CE tended to be shorter in nature
In 19th CE -> Consolidation of empires
Marked by the collapse of the Spanish, Napoleonic, Holy Roman and Mughal empires and emergence of colonial British, Russian, US and German empire
1. Free market emergence (Adam Smith) -> Due to dominance of few colonial powers and race amongst them, world moved towards globalization, industrialization, and economic integration on a massive scale thus leading to empowerment of middle class (Competition for resources)
2. Egalitarianism -> Excessive centralism by elites and exploitation via capitalism; racial discrimination (slavery) led to increase in class conflicts via rise of Marxism (Socialism), Utilitarianism and led to demand for independence and fundamental rights Eg -> Argentine Civil War, American Civil War, Indian Civil War (1857)
3. Quick progress of science via works of Darwin, Tesla, Graham Bell and works of thinkers like Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau led to establishment of modern social values and liberal thinking which provided basis for multiple civil wars against dominant western powers
In 20th CE -> Disintegration of states
1. Polarisation of world after WW-II, led to fighting of groups allied to different power axis Eg – > Iran crisis of 1946, Greek Civil war, Korean civil war in 1950 (US-China axis)
2. Spread of both communism and democratic values with more states becoming independent
3. Demand for autonomy by minorities and persecuted communities Eg -> East Europe crises (breaking of USSR), Sudanese Civil War, Ugandan CW, Bangladesh Liberation War, Sri Lankan CW
4. Led to increased accountability wrt Govt. as people tried to overthrew the corrupt Govt. Eg – First Congo War (1996), Syrian civil war
Civil wars occurs as a result of socio-eco-politico imbalance in the nation for a relatively longer period, and usually starts in non-violent way but gets translated into armed struggle when differences in ideologies exacerbate, or via external support to groups

Q) In your opinion, which measures should government take to increase the size of India’s formal economy? Discuss. (200 Words)

Ans) As India is moving towards formalisation of the economy in the back drop of more than 90% of informal sector, in order to better account and estimate the growth, following measures will help:
a) The digitisation of the economy, will bring the unorganised sector into organised and subsequently the formalisation.
b) Frequent precaution driven exercises such as demonetization also leads to it coupled with increasing financial inclusion in rural as well as the backward sections of the society
c) Opening of more bank accounts in the rural sector. Persuading the SHG’s to enable more bank accounts in the remote pockets.
d) Proper implementation of several welfare schemes to bring the vulnerable sections of the society into the mainstream such as Stand up India campaign, Mudra Yojana etc.
e) Establishment of infrastructure, both road and rail connectivity as well as digital connectivity to ensure last mile connectivity.
e) Encouraging the small and informal sector enterprises to register themselves as formal enterprises and incentivizing them with some sops and flexible labour laws.
e) As mooted by several intellectuals, following tiny innovative mechanisms will bring a huge change such as tax exemption to the households, who are giving the wages to the domestic servants, various services in the digital form.
It is not only the responsibility of the govt. but also the different stakeholders such as industry, labour unions etc to come to a consensus and pave the roads for formalisation.

2 thoughts on “March 21 Answer writing by Chanakya

  1. Bhagath Singh is visualized as a revolutionary, but his broad views on society, independence, religion etc gave him uniqueness in the revolutionaries and freedom fighters.
    His views on nationalism:
    His perception of nationalism is mass revolution against the colonial mindset. That no one is slave to another in this world. Simply attaining independence shouldn’t be the goal of freedom fighters. An Egalitarian, just, caste free society should be the target for everyone and not merely expelling the Britishers out of the nation.
    Unity among the masses by transgressing the social,regional and religious barriers to fight against the tyranny of the foreigners is the national spirit and he strived for this even at the cost of his live.For eg. even though he got chance to escape from jail, he didn’t, because of spreading his ideology of nationalism to the masses by his death.
    Even though born as a Sikh, in the later days, he became an atheist and even wrote his religious ideology in his “why I am an Atheist” as he believed the national bond as a strong bond than religious bond as Britishers, at that time, want to disintegrate the national feelings majorly on communal lines. His decision was mostly based on Contemporary communal situation.At the same time, he thought that religion is one’s personal belief and his revolutionary group of HRSA is full of Hindus and Muslims like Ashfaqulla Khan.
    Contemporary relevance of his ideas:
    a) Gross inequalities persist among the people, among different religions, castes, sub castes, sc,st and Gender inequality, which Bhagat Singh’s idea of egalitarianism has severe bearing on Indian society.
    b) Religious tolerance.
    c) Sacrifice of an Individual for the greater interest of society and nation.
    d) Ideological tolerance.
    e) Youth empowerment. Through his formations like Nav Javan Bharat Sabha, he organised mass ralies, Youth enlightenment etc. The role of Youth in Nation building is of vital importance and to empower and protect the democratic institutions, tyranny, arbitrariness of the majority or govt. or police.

    Bhagath singh is not just a revolutionary, but an ideological hub just at the age of 22. He has greater relevance for contemporary politics, economy and Youth.


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